The main reasons responsible for environmental degradation are as follows. Environmental impacts pollution soil degradation deforestation global warming population growth would not be sustainable if it has important negative impacts that will jeopardize the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Perhaps rural poverty contributes to environmental degradation on the very small proportion of the worlds forests, soils and water to which the poor have access so it is not a major contributor to global environmental degradation but a serious contributor to environmental degradation in particular places alder, graham 1995, tackling. Rapid population growth exacerbates vulnerability to the negative consequences of climate change, and exposes growing numbers of people to climate risk. Demographers expect the 8 billion milestone in 2023, with global population projected to reach 9 billion by 2037 and 10 billion by 2056. Namibia environmental and climate change policy brief. The current population growth rate in the region appears to be greater than the agricultural production rate contributing to the food insecurity and environmental degradation. Industrialization and its subsequent fast population growth and concentration are the chief contributors to environmental troubles in both developed and developing countries. Pdf population growth and environmental degradation.
Environmental degradation is a result of the dynamic inter play of socioeconomic, institutional and technological activities. Among them is the rapid population growth that has occurred over the last half a century. Higgitt encyclopedia of life support systems eolss 352 countries are, at the present time, overshooting the sustainable resource base. The impact of population on environmental degradation in south. Environmental degradation has been cited as one of four root causes of refugee flows, together with political instability economic tensions and ethnic conflict unhcr 1993. Nagdeve abstract the present paper examined the relationship of population to the environment and with growing population, poverty and urbanization the environment is degrading. Developing countries are facing and suffering by the serious problem of high population growth which is causing environmental degradation. The report analyzes the changes which have taken place in the land resources, agricultural systems, and social structures of the district over the period since 1930. Land degradation and population growth in subsaharan. In developing countries, production and consumption patterns of rural households are the main cause of environmental damage. Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil.
Rapid population growth and environmental degradation. At its simplest, it describes how human impact on the environment i is a result of a multiplicative contribution of population p, affluence a and technology t. With a conventional household model, we demonstrate that the socalled environmental kuznets curve may arise when the restrictive assumption of a set of perfect markets for factors and commodities is relaxed. The ipat equation, first devised in the 1970s, is a way of determining environmental degradation based on a multiple of factors. Demographic trends, particularly population growth, decline, aging, urbanization and international migration, are contributing to the many challenges facing humanity, including food production, water shortages, poverty, housing, climate change, environmental degradation, human rights, civil unrest, displacement and armed conflict. The growing pressure rises from population growth, urbanisation, higher living standards, mining and large numbers of livestock. Population growth is also one of the drivers of the growth in greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Impact of a growing population on natural resources. Controlling the regional human activities, which contribute to the degradation by changing land use and land cover. A major cause of environmental degradation in african countries is a population growth. The following are the prominent factors which plays an important role in increasing population, they are. Before world war ii the colonial administration was concerned that land degradation was becoming severe under the pressure of population, aggravated by drought. Rapid population growth, environmental degradation, and inefficient practices led to increasing scarcity of both cropland and water by the early 1990s. Objective the objective of this paper is to assess the effect, relationship and situation analysis scenario on population growth and environmental degradation in ethiopia.
Population growth and the pollution of water, air, and soil are contributing to the increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Aug 16, 2008 population growth and environmental degradation. The ecology of increasing diseases has complex factors of environmental degradation, population growth, and the current malnutri. The major causes of the environmental degradation are modern urbanization, industrialization, over population growth, deforestation etc. Ray 2011 investigated the contribution of population pressure to land degradation and soil erosion and found that it affects the productive. Others argue that, while the concept has some utility in indicating global unsustainability, it is. Rural poverty, food insecurity and environmental degradation. Rural poverty, food insecurity, and environmental degradation in ethiopia. To answer these questions we estimate the effect of population growth on two dimensions of environmental degradation in europe, greenhouse gas co 2 emissions and urban land use, for 1062 european nuts3 regions. The conclusion that rapid population growth has slowed development is by no means straightforward or clearcut see box 5. Population growth and the resultant human activities generate. Population growth and economic development are contributing to many serious environmental calamities in india. Chinas environmental crisis council on foreign relations.
Environmental depredations pose a serious threat to chinas economic growth, costing the country roughly 3 to 10 percent of its gross national income, according to various estimates. Population is growing rapidly, far outpacing the ability of our planet to support it, given current practices. Population is an important source of development, yet it is a major source of environmental degradation when it exceeds the threshold limits of the support systems. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. National academy of sciences, national academy of engineering, and institute of medicine. As indicated by the ipat equation, environmental impact i or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large and increasing human population p, continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence a, and the application of resourcedepleting and polluting technology t. The overall aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation with particular reference to carbon emissions and deforestation. High fertility contributes to population growth, which further increases demands for food and resources from an essentially static resource base. Impact of population growth on environmental degradation.
Here we briefly outline the conclusions of this school of thought as expressed in an overview of the population. This study discusses the use of double time growth analysis in the explanation of the need for population control in nigeria and the potential danger that might emanate from the continuous neglect of environmental issues presented by environmentalists and population demographers in nigeria and the world at large. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation in. In the environmental implications of population dynamics, lori hunter synthesizes current knowledge about the influence of population dynamics on the environment. Economic development and population growth in the poor areas of the earth is a subject of an essential concern for the environmental economists. Environmental degradation perpetuates environmental injustice by making the damage and losses suffered by poor and marginalized people worse than would otherwise be the case. Causes and impacts of land degradation and desertification. Growth of population in india and its impact on natural. Environmental degradation affects agricultural productivity through land degradation, climatic change, and declining land per capita. Population and the environment the impact of population growth on economic development is a complex issue. Environmental degradation in the greater horn of africa. What are causes and effects of environmental degradation.
Migration can contribute to sustainable development by expand. Conveying the issue of population growth to the general public is further troubled by skepticism from historical flipflops about the significance of overpopulation lee 2009, environmental generational amnesia or the process through which declining baselines over generations reduce levels of concern miller 2005, knowlton and jackson 2008. First, lets look at the evidence about resource scarcity and environmental change, and see what. Aug 31, 2018 the term overpopulation is used to describe a situation in which the world or area has a population so large that the people there are suffering as a result. Poverty, environmental degradation, sustainable development, northsouth dichotomy, debtresource hypothesis. Is overpopulation the root cause of environmental degradation. Interaction between population and environmental degradation. This damage can occur as the loss of health, life, andor property during socalled natural disasters and humanmade ones.
Notes on causes of population growth extra references. The scholarly literature on this issue labels this view, which stresses the mixed and ambiguous impacts of population growth on economic change, revisionism. Desertification has been defined as land degradation in arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities11. Environmental degradation is t he deterioration o f the environment throu gh depletion of resources s uch a s ai r, water and soil. A conclusion is made that environmental change is as an important factor to demographic and economic factors as it is population growth to economic development and environmental conservation. Rapid population growth and environmental stress barry. Urbanization and environmental degradation in jordan. Global concerns the impact of human activity on the natural resources.
Growth of population in india and its impact on natural resources dinesh kaushik assistant professor ch. Environmental pollution refers to the degradation of quality and quantity of natural resources. Ultimate versus proximate factors volume 16 issue 3 r. Malawi has been ranked by the world bank as one of the poorest countries in africa. Population summit of the worlds scientific academies. This growth is slightly faster than projections from just a few years ago. This increased the frequency of cultivation on a specific landholding which diminished fallowing. The analysis is based upon the environmental kuznets curve ekc model, which posits an invertedu relationship between incomes per capita and environmental quality. Environmental changes may be driven by many factors including economic growth, population growth, urbanization, intensification. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement1. What are environmental problems due to population growth. The effect of population growth on the environment. I urbanization and environmental degradation in jordan david l. One of the main causes of environmental degradation is population explosion or rapid growth of population.
Interaction between population and environmental degradation core. From the western coastal plain of the namib desert to the eastern kalahari zone, namibia is characterized by aridity. The challenge for environmental management david pimentel, x. In other words, the population exceeds the region or planets carrying capacitythe number of people, other living organisms, or crops that can be supported without environmental degradation. Sustainable development means a emphasizing the role of the market. Environmental degradation is the major problem not only of the local government but also of the whole world. Human population as a dynamic factor in environmental degradation mahb.
Population pressure contributes to land degradation. As chapter 4 showed, in europe, japan, and north america economic growth has been accompanied by moderate population growth, which. Introduction there is an increasing recognition of the linkages between rapid population increase and the quality of the environment. A case study from south central ethiopia summary this paper addresses the challenge of reducing poverty, food insecurity, and natural resource degradation, and abolishing recurrent famines in ethiopia. Meaning and relation population growth is the main cause of the socioeconomic problem including environmental degradation, pollution, desertification, deforestation, intensive cultivation, over utilization of grazing and other environmental problems.
Sophia perdikaris in this research paper, the main focus is on the issue of overpopulation and its impact on the environment. The role of environmental degradation in population. These staggering numbers are the result of being within the exponential phase of population growth since last century, such that some 14% of all. This scarcity, along with the spread of agricultural technologies that favored large landholders, helped concentrate valuable land in the hands of the countrys economic and military elite i. This means that we are predicted to exceed 9 billion people by 2050, with no peak in site this century and a world population of up to 12 billion by 2100. Unesco eolss sample chapters human settlement development vol. Population growth and environmental degradation article pdf available in africa insight 224.
Clearly there is a relationship between population growth and environmental. Environmental degradation contributes to poverty through. As indicated by the ipat equation, environmental impact i or. Dec 05, 2017 abstract the rate of global environmental degradation ed has led to focus on population control as a means of securing our species sustainability. Bansi lal university, bhiwani keywords population, environmental degradation, urbanization, industrialization, economic development, pollution, deforestation, sustainable development. It could reach 8 billion by 2025, 9 billion by 2040, and a whopping 11 billion by 2100. The growing size of the global population is not an issue that appeared within the past. Essays on environmental degradation and economic development. Meaning and relation population growth is the main cause of the socioeconomic problem including environmental degradation, pollution, desertification, deforestation, intensive cultivation, over utilization of grazing and other environmental. Malawis only resources are its people and fertile soil, which comprises about 55% of land area.
As might be imagined population growth has positive and negative effects on development. The interplay between population growth, resource depletion, and environmental degradation has been a matter of debate for decades. Start the discussion today with the notion of sustainability. Population growth and environmental degradation in india by dr. Pimentel introduction a h e a l t h y and prudently managed environment is a major benefit to humans and other species. These include heavy pressure on land, land degradation, forests, habitat destruction and loss of.
Since populations can grow exponentially, resource depletion can occur rapidly, leading to specific environmental concerns such as global warming, deforestation and decreasing biodiversity. The magnitude of the problem varies from country to country. Population growth is the increase in the number of people living in a particular area. Population growth, resource consumption, and the environment. Population growth and environmental degradation in malawi. Jul 31, 2007 the world health organization who and other organizations report that the prevalence of human diseases during the past decade is rapidly increasing. Does the simultaneous occurrence of population growth and environmental decline over the past century indicate that more people translate into greater environmental degradation. Population growth, environmental degradation, composition effect and generalised. Assessment of linkages between population dynamics and. Environmental degradation an overview sciencedirect topics. All life on earth obtains its food and other necessities from this environment. Population growth and environmental degradation population is an important source of development, yet it is a major source of environmental degradation when it exceeds the threshold limits of the support systems.1189 125 1252 1325 555 836 380 212 175 666 358 684 1209 727 678 1317 251 1428 1086 991 800 206 1497 1422 408 125 822 470 1123 655 981 905 1378 1062 813 96 1013 519 822 1155